Courses Geology L1 2024 PDF

 Courses Geology L1 2024 PDF

1. What is Geology?

Geology (in Greek, Geo means Earth, Logos means Science) is a branch of science dealing with the study of the Earth. It is also known as earth science. 

The study of the earth comprises of the whole earth, its origin, structure, composition and history (including the development of life) and the nature of the processes.

2. Main Branches of Geology:

Being a broad and diverse field, Geology has many branches and applications. 

Further, let’s take a look at the four major branches of Geology along with some examples, namely: physical geology, historical geology, environmental geology, and economic geology.

2.1 Physical Geology:

Physical geology is the branch of geology that studies the physical features and processes of the Earth. It investigates how the Earth’s surface and interior are shaped by natural forces such as plate tectonics, erosion, weathering, volcanism, earthquakes, etc. Physical geology also examines the properties and classification of earth materials such as minerals and rocks.

Some examples of physical geology topics are:

- Geomorphology: the study of landforms and their formation.

- Mineralogy: the study of minerals and their structure, composition, identification, and classification.

- Petrology: the study of rocks and their origin, composition, texture, and classification.

- Volcanology: the study of volcanoes and volcanic phenomena.

- Seismology: the study of earthquakes and seismic waves.

2.2 Historical Geology:

Historical geology is the branch of geology that studies the geological history of the Earth and its life forms. Additionally, it reconstructs the past events and changes that have occurred on the Earth’s surface and interior over billions of years. Historical geology also explores the origin, evolution, extinction, and distribution of life on Earth.

Some examples of historical geology topics are:

- Stratigraphy: the study of rock layers (strata) and their correlation, dating, and interpretation.

- Paleontology: the study of fossils and ancient life forms.

- Geochronology: the study of the age of rocks and geological events using various dating methods such as radiometric dating.

2.3 Environmental Geology:

Environmental geology is the branch of geology that studies the interactions between the Earth and human activities. It evaluates how human activities affect or are affected by the Earth’s systems such as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere.

Some examples of environmental geology topics are:

- Hydrogeology: the study of groundwater flow, quality, quantity, and management.

- Geochemistry: the study of chemical composition and reactions of earth materials and fluids.

- Engineering geology: the study of geological factors that influence engineering projects such as dams, bridges, tunnels, buildings, etc.

Courses Geology L1 2024 PDF
Courses Geology L1 2024 PDF


Download PDF 1: Chapter 1 Geology : HERE
Download PDF 2: Chapter 2 Geology : HERE
Download PDF 3: Chapter 3 Geology : HERE
Download PDF 4: Chapter 4 Geology : HERE

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